Table of Contents
Mutual funds are an excellent way to invest in stocks, bonds and other securities.
They are a good choice of investment because:
- They are managed by professional money managers, so most of the investment
research is done for you (most investors don’t have the time or know-how to do
all the necessary research).
- You diversify your investment risk by owning shares in a mutual fund, instead
of buying individual stocks or bonds directly.
- Transaction costs are often lower than what you would pay if you invested
in individual securities (the mutual fund buys and sells large amounts of
securities at a time).
Before getting into our discussion of mutual funds, there are three important
points to keep in mind:
- Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. Beware
of dazzling performance claims. Many publications recommend mutual funds based
only on past performance.
- Mutual funds are not guaranteed or insured by any bank or government agency.
Even if you buy through a bank and the fund carries the bank’s name, there is no
guarantee. You can lose your investment.
- All mutual funds have costs that lower your investment returns. Thus,
even an index fund that mirrors a broad market index cannot perform as well
as its mirror index, since the fund has transaction and operating costs that
the index does not.
How To Choose A Mutual Fund
Once you determine your asset allocation model, you can implement the recommended
portfolio with mutual funds. You need only six to ten funds to achieve diversification
and your asset allocation objectives, as opposed to having to buy many more individual
securities to achieve the same results.
Caution: Keep in mind that mutual funds ALWAYS carry investment risks. Some carry more risk than others; a higher rate of return typically involves a higher risk. don’t buy a fund without knowing–and being willing to accept–the risk. The types of risks that attend a mutual fund depend on the type of fund. Risks are discussed later in the section on “Types of Mutual Funds and Their Varying Risk Factors.”
Once you identify the asset classes that will be represented in your portfolio, it’s time to select specific funds in those categories-i.e., funds that meet your investment goals. To choose wisely, it’s necessary to assess:
- A fund’s risk/reward history and characteristics, which should match your own financial profile;
- A fund’s philosophy and investment style, which should match your own investment goals;
- A fund’s costs, including loads and ongoing expenses; and
- The customer service available from the fund.
Tip: Find out whether the fund will stop offering shares to the public
once its assets have grown to a certain point (sometimes the case with small-cap funds).
What About Recommendations?
Most sources of mutual fund recommendations are inadequate. They either depend
solely on past performance or fail to take into account your particular needs.
Newsletters and magazines, for example, often simply recommend last year’s hot
fund-which, even though it may remain hot for the current year, may be totally
wrong for you.
A fund’s past performance is not as important as you might think. Advertisements,
rankings, and ratings tell you how well a fund has performed in the past. But studies
show that the future is often different. This year’s “No. 1” fund can easily become
next year’s dog.
Tip: Although past performance is not a reliable indicator of future
performance, past volatility is a good indicator of future volatility.
Here are some tips for comparing fund performances:
- Check the fund’s total return. You will find it in the Financial Highlights
of the prospectus (near the front). Total return measures increases and decreases
in the value of the investment over time, after subtracting costs. This is just
one of many return measures.
- Find out how the fund ranked in its investment category class. There are various
rating systems available to show how a fund ranked among its peers.
- See how the total return has varied over the years. The Financial Highlights
in the prospectus show yearly total return for the most recent 10-year period.
An impressive 10-year total return may be based on one spectacular year followed
by many average years. Looking at year-to-year changes in total return is a good
way to see how stable the fund’s returns have been.
- Check the fund’s Sharpe ratio. The Sharpe ratio is intended to give investors
an understanding of the fund’s performance relative to the risk. The Sharpe ratio
is calculated by subtracting the average monthly return of the 90-day Treasury
Bill-basically a risk-free return-from the average monthly return of the fund.
The difference-the “excess” return- is then annualized and divided by the fund’s
annual standard deviation (a common measure of volatility).
Tip: Mathematical theory aside, the important point is that the higher
the Sharpe ratio, the higher the fund’s performance with less of a risk.
Costs are important because they lower your returns. A fund that has a sales
load and high expenses will have to perform better than a low-cost fund, just to stay even.
Find the fee table near the front of the fund’s prospectus, where the fund’s
costs are laid out. You can use the fee table to compare the costs of different funds.
The fee table breaks costs into two main categories:
- Sales loads and transaction fees (paid when you buy, sell or exchange your shares) and
- Ongoing expenses (paid while you remain invested in the fund).
The first part of the fee table will tell you if the fund charges any sales loads.
No-load funds by definition, do not charge sales loads. There are no-load funds
in every major fund category. Even no-load funds have ongoing expenses, however,
such as management fees.
A sales load usually pays for commissions to the brokers who sell the fund’s
shares to you, as well as other marketing costs. Sales loads buy you a broker’s
services and advice; they do not assure superior performance.
Front-end load: A front-end load is a sales charge you pay when you buy shares.
This type of load, which by law cannot be higher than 8.5 percent of your investment-although
in practice are often much less-reduces the amount of your investment in the fund.
Back-end load: A back-end load (also called a deferred load) is a sales charge
you pay when you sell or exchange your shares. It usually starts out at 5 or 6 percent
for the first year and gets smaller each year after that until it reaches zero
say, in year six or seven year of your investment.
Example: You invest $1,000 in a mutual fund with a 6 percent back-end load that
decreases to zero in the seventh year. Let’s assume that the value of your
investment remains at $1,000 for seven years. If you sell your shares during
the first year, you will get back only $940 (the $60 will go to pay the sales
charge). If you sell your shares during the seventh year, you will get back $1,000.
Tip: Many funds allow you to exchange your shares for those of another
fund managed by the same adviser. The first part of the fee table will tell
you if there is any exchange fee.
The second part of the fee table tells you the kinds of ongoing expenses you
will pay while you remain invested in the fund. It shows expenses as a percentage
of the fund’s assets, generally for the most recent fiscal year. Here, the table
will tell you the management fee for managing the fund’s portfolio, along with
any other fees and expenses.
Caution: Check the fee table to see if any part of a fund’s fees or
expenses has been waived. If so, the fees and expenses may increase suddenly
when the waiver ends (the part of the prospectus after the fee table will tell
you by how much).
High expenses do not assure superior performance. Higher-expense funds do not,
on average, perform better than lower-expense funds. But there may be circumstances
in which you decide it is appropriate to pay higher expenses. For example, you can
expect to pay higher expenses for certain types of funds that require extra work by
managers, such as international stock funds, which require sophisticated research.
Caution: You may also pay higher expenses for funds that provide special
services, like toll-free telephone numbers, check-writing and automatic investment programs.
A difference in expenses that may look small to you can make a big difference
in the value of your investment over time.
Example: You invest $1,000 in a fund, which yields an annual return of
5 percent before expenses. If the fund has expenses of 1.5 percent, after 20 years you would
end up with roughly $2,012. If the fund has expenses of 0.5 percent, you would end up
with more than $2,455 – a 22 percent difference. If your investment is $100,000 instead
of $1,000, that means a difference of more than $44,000.
Rule 12b-1 fee: One type of ongoing fee that is taken out of fund assets has
come to be known as a Rule 12b-1 fee. It most often is used to pay commissions
to brokers and other salespersons, and occasionally to pay for advertising and
other costs of promoting the fund to investors. It usually is between 0.25 percent and
1.00 percent of assets annually.
Funds with back-end loads usually have higher Rule 12b-1 fees. If you are considering
whether to pay a front-end load or a back-end load, think about how long you plan to
stay in the fund. If you plan to stay in for six years or more, a back-end load will
usually cost less than a front-end load.
Caution: Yet, even if your back-end load has fallen to zero, you could
pay more in Rule 12b-1 fees over time than if you paid a front-end load.
Comparing Investment Philosophy
Here are some suggestions for examining a fund’s approach to investing.
1. Determine the fund’s overall investment objectives.
Tip: Morningstar’s system of rating mutual funds includes 40 investment
objectives. This extensive list can be helpful in narrowing the comparison of
funds’ objectives. Morningstar’s style boxes can also be used to compare funds’ styles.
2. Determine whether the fund’s portfolio matches its stated investment objectives.
The fund should fully reveal how it invests.
Tip: Morningstar’s “style boxes” are extremely useful in determining (1)
whether a fund’s investment approach has a low, moderate, or high risk/return
profile and (2) the types of securities invested in.
3. Determine whether the fund invests overseas.
Caution: Generally, international equities are a longer-term, higher-risk investment.
4. For an equity fund, determine the industry sectors in which it’s invested.
5. For a bond fund, determine the years to maturity of its holdings and whether
it holds any tax-exempt bonds.
6. Find out how long the fund’s management has been in place and whether one
particular manager has been responsible for the success of the fund.
Caution: If the manager is relatively new, this may add risk to the fund,
unless the manager has had experience elsewhere.
Comparing Customer Service
You’ll want to find out what services the fund offers. Among the questions you should ask are:
- How long does it take to reach a representative?
- Which account options does the fund offer?
- How quickly are questions about returns or investments answered?
Risk Factors In General
You take risks when you invest in any mutual fund. You may lose some or all of
the money you invest (your principal) because the securities held by a fund go
up and down in value. What you earn on your investment (dividends and interest)
also may go up or down. The various types of risk are:
- Volatility: The unpredictability of changes in stock prices.
- Interest-rate risk: The fluctuation in bond prices due to interest rate changes.
- Credit risk: The likelihood that payments of bond interest and principal will not be made as promised.
- Inflation risk: The risk that the lowered purchasing power of the dollar will erode your return.
Each kind of mutual fund has different risks and rewards. Generally, the higher
the potential return, the higher the risk of loss. The following discussion of
risk for the various types of funds is intended to aid you in choosing a fund
that meets your requirements as an investor.
Money Market Fund Risks
Money market funds are relatively low risk compared to other mutual funds.
They are limited by law to certain high-quality, short-term investments. They
try to keep their net asset value (NAV) at a stable $1.00 per share.
Caution: Contrary to popular belief, NAV may fall below $1.00 if the funds’
investments perform poorly. Although investor losses have been rare, they are possible.
Caution: Banks now sell mutual funds, some of which carry the bank’s name.
But mutual funds sold by banks, including money market funds, are not bank deposits.
Don’t confuse a “money market fund” with a “money market deposit account.” The names
are similar, but they are completely different:
- A money market fund is a type of mutual fund. It is not guaranteed, and comes
with a prospectus.
- A money market deposit account is a bank deposit. It is guaranteed, and comes
with a “Truth in Savings” form.
Caution: Many bank funds are just “private label” funds, i.e., run by a fund
family for the bank. This adds an extra layer of cost.
Bond Fund Risks
Bond funds (also called fixed-income funds) have higher risks than money market
funds, but usually pay higher yields. Unlike money market funds, bond funds are
not restricted to high-quality or short-term investments. Because there are many
different types of bonds, bond funds can vary dramatically in their risks and rewards.
Most bond funds have credit risk, the risk that companies or other issuers whose
bonds are owned by the fund may fail to pay their bond holders. Some funds have
little credit risk, however, such as those that invest in insured bonds or U.S.
Treasury bonds. Keep in mind that nearly all bond funds have interest rate risk,
which means that the market value of their bonds will go down when interest rates
go up. Because of this, you can lose money in any bond fund, including those that
invest only in insured bonds or Treasury bonds. Long-term bond funds invest in bonds
with longer maturities (the length of time until the final payout). The net asset
values (NAVs) of long-term bond funds can go up or down more rapidly than those of
shorter-term bond funds.
Tip: Morningstar’s rating system uses specific times to maturity to
distinguish between long-term, short-term and medium-term bonds. This system
can help you choose the bond fund that is most suitable with regard to interest-rate risk.
Stock Fund Risks
Stock funds (also called equity funds) generally involve more risk-volatility-than
money market or bond funds, but they also offer the highest returns. A stock fund’s
value can rise and fall quickly over the short term, but historically stocks have
performed better over the long term than other types of investments.
Mutual fund rating companies use “beta” to measure risk. Beta measures a fund’s
price fluctuations relative to those of the whole market-that is, its sensitivity
to market movements.
Not all stock funds are the same. For example, growth funds focus on stocks
that may not pay a regular dividend but have the potential for large capital
gains. Others specialize in a particular industry segment such as technology stocks.
The level of volatility in a stock fund depends on the fund’s investments, e.g.,
small-cap growth stocks are more volatile than large-cap value stocks. The level
of volatility is also affected by industry sector. Also, international stocks are
generally more volatile than domestic stocks.
The foregoing generalizations are intended only as such. It is important, when
examining a fund for risk/reward characteristics, to analyze each fund on a case-by-case basis.
Caution: Funds that invest in derivatives face special risks. Derivatives –
which come in many different types and have many different uses – are financial
instruments whose performance is derived, at least in part, from the performance
of an underlying asset, security or index. Their value can be affected dramatically
by even small market movements, sometimes in unpredictable ways. However, they do
not necessarily increase risk, and may in fact reduce risk. A fund’s prospectus will
disclose how it may use derivatives. You may also want to call a fund and ask how it
uses these instruments.
There are a number of sources of information that you should explore before investing
in mutual funds. The most important of these is the prospectus, which is the fund’s
selling document and contains information about costs, risks, past performance and
the fund’s investment goals. Request the prospectus from the fund or from a financial
professional if you are using one. Read the prospectus, and exercise your judgment
carefully, before you invest.
Read the sections of the prospectus that discuss the risks, investment goals
and investment policies of the fund you are considering. Funds of the same type
can have significantly different risks, objectives and policies.
All mutual funds must prepare a Statement of Additional Information (SAI, also
called Part B of the prospectus). It explains a fund’s operations in greater
detail than the prospectus. If you ask, the fund must send you an SAI.
You can get a clearer picture of a fund’s investment goals and policies by reading
its annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. If you ask, the fund will send
you these reports. You can also research funds at most libraries or by using an on-line service.
Government and Non-Profit Agencies
The SEC has public reference rooms at its headquarters in Washington,
D.C., and at its Northeast and Midwest Regional offices. Copies of the
text of documents filed in these reference rooms may be obtained by
visiting or writing the Public Reference Room (at a standard per page
reproduction rate) or through private contractors (who charge for research
Other sources of information filed with the SEC include public or law
libraries, securities firms, financial service bureaus, computerized
on-line services, and the companies themselves.
Most companies whose stock is traded over the counter or on a stock
exchange must file “full disclosure” reports on a regular basis
with the SEC. The annual report (Form 10-K) is the most comprehensive of
these. It contains a narrative description and statistical information on
the company’s business, operations, properties, parents, and subsidiaries;
its management, including their compensation and ownership of
company securities: and significant legal proceedings which involve the
company. Form 10-K also contains the audited financial statements of the
company (including a balance sheet, an income statement, and a statement
of cash flow) and provides management’s discussion of business operations
and prospects for the future.
Quarterly financial information on Form 8-K may be required as well.
Anyone may obtain copies (at a modest copying charge) of any corporate
report and most other documents filed with the Commission by visiting the SEC website
American Association of Individual Investors
(offers an annual guide to low-load mutual funds):
625 North Michigan Avenue
Chicago, IL 60611
Investment Company Institute (a trade association of fund companies that publishes an annual directory of mutual funds):
1401 H Street NW, Suite 1200
Washington, DC 20005
Mutual Fund Education Alliance (publishes an annual guide to low-cost mutual funds: